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Authors

  • Green, BD
  • Gault, Victor
  • Irwin, Nigel
  • Mooney, MH
  • Bailey, CJ
  • Harriott, P
  • Greer, B
  • Flatt, Peter
  • O'Harte, Finbarr

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Metabolic stability, receptor binding, cAMP generation, insulin secretion and antihyperglycaemic activity of novel N-terminal Glu(9)-substituted analogues of glucagon-like peptide-1

Date

01-12-2003

Abstract

Glucagonlike peptide-1(7 36)amide (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone with therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetes. Rapid removal of the Nterminal dipeptide, His7-Ala8, by the ubiquitous enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) curtails the biological activity of GLP-1. Chemical modifications or substitutions of GLP-1 at His7 or Ala8 improve resistance to DPPIV action, but this often reduces potency. Little attention has focused on the metabolic stability and functional activity of GLP-1 analogues with amino acid substitution at Glu9, adjacent to the DPP IV cleavage site. We generated three novel Glu9-substituted GLP-1 analogues, (Pro9)GLP-1, (Phe9)GLP-1 and (Tyr9)GLP-1 and show for the first time that Glu9 of GLP-1 is important in DPP IV degradation, since replacing this amino acid, particularly with proline, substantially reduced susceptibility to degradation. All three novel GLP-1 analogues showed similar or slightly enhanced insulinotropic activity compared with native GLP-1 despite a moderate 4 10-fold reduction in receptor binding and cAMP generation. In addition, (Pro9)GLP 1 showed significant ability to moderate the plasma glucose excursion and increase circulating insulin concentrations in severely insulin resistant obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice. These observations indicate the importance of Glu9 for the biological activity of GLP-1 and susceptibility to DPP IVmediated degradation.